Bijar Style Rugs
Bijar, located in the northeast of Iran, in Kurdistan province, is a city and area called the Roof of Iran on account of its high elevation. This mountainous area is a historic Kurdish region, which is autonomous, and where Kurdish, a west Iranian language is spoken. Kurds constitute the majority of the population. Bijar has been famous for its rugs since the time of the first Persian (Achaemenid) Empire in the 5th century BCE. Bijar (or Bidjar) rugs are made with a “wet weaving” technique: wool is dampened as its woven and then beaten down with an iron tool. After the wool dries, its fabric becomes compact, which makes the rug quite strong, durable and long-lasting. In fact, as a result of this special weaving process, it has been called the Iron Rug of Iran.
The garrus (or gerous) design in the 19th-century that features a split leaf arabesques in the field and borders was common in larger Bijar rugs. (Garrus was also the former name of the Kurdish region of Bijar, and it refers to a Kurdish subtribe.) The arabesque is a design motif consisting of intertwining branches, vines or tendrils usually with floral references or geometric in form. The herati design pattern with a rosette in a diamond with leaves along its four sides is also common in Bijar rugs, as our rectilinear designs, medallion and pendant medallion, a stylized tree of life and cypress designs in the early 20th-century. New Bijar rugs have less elaborate designs and use synthetic dyes.